Under Hindu law, a mother turns into the property owner regardless of whether she gets it through a will or by any other method. It becomes self-acquired property for her. In case the mother has inherited ancestral property from her father, i.e., even though the property is ancestral; it turns into the mother's self-acquired property. There are no criteria or qualifications in the Hindu Succession Act for married or unmarried daughters. In this way, whether the daughter is married or unmarried, she gets equivalent rights in the mother's self-acquired property alongside her sibling and husband of the deceased mother. In law, married daughters can uphold their right by filing a suit in the court for devolution of property as per the Hindu succession act.
The property of a mother devolves as per Hindu Succession Act, 1956, and the act applies to intestate succession. According to Section 15 of the Act, the following persons inherit a woman's property after her death.
Children of pre-deceased children
Mother and Father of the deceased mother
Heirs of husband
Heirs of father and mother
Though, during the mother's lifetime, only the mother has a right to claim her share in her father's property. As the daughter or son of such a mother, the individual can file a suit for partition through a power of attorney, which the mother will execute in her children's name.
On 11th August 2020, in the case of Vineeta Sharma vs. Rakesh Sharma, the Supreme Court of India passed a milestone judgment expressing that the Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005 will have a retrospective effect. The Amendment made in 2005 corrected Section 6 of the act to be in consonance with the constitutional belief of gender equality. The Amendment has now given a daughter equal rights as the son. The case settled the matter in inquiry; regardless of the Amendment made in 2005, it considered the daughter to have the similar right as of a son in the coparcenary property irrespective of the father being alive or dead before 2005. Father's death will not obstruct a daughter's right from claiming her share in coparcenary property.
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DAUGHTER'S RIGHT IN PROPERTY
Until the Amendment in 2005, daughters had no right to property. They were merely members of the family and did not have a share in the property. After marriage, a daughter was viewed as a part of her husband's family. But now, a daughter has certain rights that can be exercised.
As per the Hindu Succession Act, 1956:
Both married and unmarried daughters now have a legal right to their father and mother's property.
Daughters can now also become the manager or Karta in ancestral property.
Daughters have the same rights and obligations as their sons.
Daughters have an equal right to be coparceners.
MARRIED DAUGHTER'S RIGHT IN MOTHER'S PROPERTY
A married daughter has equivalent rights in her mother's property as the son, in the event where the mother dies intestate; the married daughter inherits the share equally with the son according to the Act of 1956. The married daughter is the legal heir of her deceased mother, and subsequently, she has the right to claim her share in her mother's property. Her mother's share in the ancestral property shall become her mother's self-acquired property if she had died intestate; her legal heirs are entitled to a share as a right.
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DAUGHTER IN LAW'S SHARE IN MOTHER IN LAW'S PROPERTY
Hindu Undivided Family (HUF) awards a daughter-in-law the status of a HUF member; however, it doesn't make her a coparcener. The daughter-in-law acquires HUF property rights through her husband's share in the HUF property (either given by the husband or received after the death of the husband). The daughter-in-law cannot claim any right on the property exclusively to her in-laws. On account of her mother-in-law's demise, her children will get the share in her property, and the daughter-in-law will acquire the rights only of her husband's share. And thus, the daughters-in-law do not have the right to self-acquired property of her in-laws. In Jitendra Kumar v Varinder Kumar the Punjab and Haryana High court held in 2016, the daughter in law cannot claim the self-acquired property of her in-laws. Similarly, in the case of SR Batra v Taruna Batra, the Supreme Court held that a mother-in-law-owned house could not be claimed as a shared household. The daughter-in-law cannot claim her right over such property.
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